Hardness is the measurement of calcium and magnesium, expressed as Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3). The term hardness came into use because calcium and magnesium made clothes feel “hard” when they were dried on a clothesline.

Hardness is usually removed to prevent the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in boilers or other processes.

Hardness may be removed from water by:

  • Water softening (Cation ion exchange in the sodium cycle)
  • Reverse osmosis
  • Demineralization
  • Cold lime softening
  • Cation ion exchange in the hydrogen cycle
  • Hot lime softening

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